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Transformer Maintenance Checklist 101

Transformer Maintenance Checklist 101

Transformer Maintenance Checklist

Transformers, like any other electrical equipment, require regular maintenance as well. With proper care, a transformer can function smoothly, increasing your productive workflow and ensuring a longer equipment life. We understand that putting a regular transformer check on your schedule might be hectic, with many different parts and components requiring individual care and attention almost daily, some even hourly. Hence, we have come up with the most comprehensive checklist for the maintenance of electrical transformers. Read on to learn more about the essentials to keep your transformer healthy in this article.

What Is The Importance Of Transformers In An Electrical Power System?

Transformers can be generally defined as voltage-controlling devices allowing the distribution and transmission of current. It is widely used in electrical industries to handle high voltage electric current and distribute it in low voltages for consumption. This is necessary as the high voltage current, when distributed directly to your homes, may lead to short circuits and destroy your electrical appliances.

Electrical transformers work on the principle of electromagnetic induction and work by increasing or decreasing the supply voltage. Thus it helps in the seamless movement of electricity from generating power plants to homes and offices. As such, the importance of transformers in an electrical power system would include:

  • Converts high voltage AC to low voltages so that it’s safer to distribute 
  • Safe medium to distribute electricity over long distances.
  • Helps prevent damage from High Voltage AC in a circuit
  • Controls the power of AC, which helps in lowering your electricity bill

How Does An Electrical Transformer Work?

As we know, a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction and alternates current from higher to lower voltages. Hence, a transformer doesn’t itself create energy but is a mere distributor of energy by changing the voltages to suit the needs of different circuits.

The electricity enters the transformer through the primary coil. With this, there forms a moving magnetic field around the coil. The secondary coil from which the current is distributed at a lower voltage is placed near the primary coil. Thus, with the moving electric field, the current is either increased or decreased based on turns taken by the current. Wrapping the two coils together ( the primary and secondary coil) with the primary one with a few more loops than the other one generates a current at a lower voltage in the second coil than it is present in the primary coil.

Checklist For Daily Maintenance Of Transformers

There are a few components of transformers that are required for daily maintenance. This type of regular checking on your transformers is also known as conditional maintenance. As such, your daily checklist for electrical transformer maintenance must include the following:

  • Check the transformer yard to ensure no object may disrupt the transformer’s working.
  • Ensure that the re-extinguishers are free from dust so that they may quickly work in the face of an emergency.
  • Make sure the transformer is clean and placed in a proper space.
  • Keep track of any abnormal noises in the transformer to avoid costly breakdowns.
  • Look out for loose connections in your transformer, mostly around earthing and surge arrestors.
  • Keep a note of the reading on the winding temperature of your transformer.
  • Check the incoming supply of current. Keep it is in the ON position.
  • Also, look at the re-buckets occasionally to check for enough sand.
  • Ensure you check the oil temperature, hourly level, and voltage points.

Components That Require Annual Maintenance Of Transformers

You must get the transformer checked in detail, on a yearly basis. Some of the parts you need to check may include oil pumps, air fans, control circuits, and other components that work together for the function of the cooling system. With the cooling system checked, you can get an overview of the physical condition of your transformer. 

The bushing must be cleaned with soft cotton cloths and checked for cracks. Though it is recommended to have a half-yearly check for the oil condition of your transformer, a yearly oil test is mandatory for your transformer. You must also get a mechanical inspection done as a transformer works under heavy current pressures, which makes it prone to damaged parts.

Apart from this, you must get the marshalling boxes cleaned and checked along with other functions like illumination, space heaters, terminal connections, relays, alarms, control switches, etc. Other important aspects to check for may include insulation resistance, battery power, and DGA (Dissolve Gas Analysis).

The Ultimate Monthly Checklist For Your Electrical Transformer Maintenance

Transformer Maintenance Checklist

The ultimate checklist for your monthly electrical transformer maintenance would include the following:

  • Examine the transformer tank, bushings, cooling system, and accessories for any signs of damage, such as oil leaks, corrosion, rust, or physical damage.
  • Inspect the transformer for any debris, plants, or other objects that might interfere with its ventilation.
  • Utilize the gauge glass or level indicator to determine the oil level. Maintain the oil level within the prescribed range.
  • Check the oil for pollutants, color, clarity, and presence of contaminants. Take a sample of the oil for testing if it seems fuzzy or includes particles.
  • Utilize the sensors or gauges installed into the transformer to monitor the operating temperature. Keep a watch out for any abnormal increase in temperature.
  • Check the condition and functioning of the fans, radiators, and cooling fins.
  • Ensure sure that nothing that can restrict heat dissipation is in the way of cooling systems, such as dust, dirt, or obstructions.
  • Check for fractures and discoloration or symptoms of tracking in bushings and insulators.
  • Maintaining proper insulation may require cleaning insulators.
  • Check and tighten all electrical connections, including grounding connections and terminal nuts.
  • Keep an eye out for loose connections or overheating.
  • To ensure efficient moisture control, check the breather for the right color (typically blue to signify dryness), and replace or regenerate silica gel as necessary.
  • Check the functionality of any suitable pressure relief devices and reset them if necessary.
  • If the transformer has a gas monitoring system, examine gas levels for unusual activity or problems.
  • Keep thorough records of all maintenance tasks, including any anomalies noticed and the steps followed.
  • Ensure that all service staff receive regular training and remain acquainted with the most recent practices and safety regulations.
  • Consider setting a timetable or employing maintenance management software to track and organize normal repairs.
  • To reduce downtime, keep spare parts, oil, and necessary tools close at hand.
  • Consult a qualified transformer service provider for additional evaluation and repairs if serious problems or anomalies are found.


Given the importance of transformers in an electrical power system, a routine check of your transformers is worth it. In short, the key to better performance, higher reliability, longer durability and safe working of transformers is proper electrical transformer maintenance on a regular, daily basis. With so many intricate components and high pressure operations, scheduled maintenance of transformers can prevent your business from costly breakdowns or potential electrical hazards. 


1. What Are The Maintenance Requirements For A Distribution Transformer?

As with any other type of transformer, checking for oil level, voltage surges, connections, and regular visual and performance tests would be enough to manage a well-maintained distribution transformer.

2. Why Do Transformers Need Maintenance And Services?

Transformers work under high-pressure conditions converting high-voltage AC to lower voltages. Due to this, they may heat up faster, and they are open to the risks of electrical hazards. Hence, regular maintenance is necessary to ensure security and avoid the breakdown of a transformer.  

3. What Is Oil Needed In Maintenance Of A Transformer?

Oils inside the transformer can serve various purposes like lubrication, cooling, insulation, arc quenching, and damping.

Difference Between Surge arresters And Lightning arresters

Difference Between Surge arresters And Lightning arresters

Difference Between Surge arresters And Lightning arresters​

Surge arresters and lightning arresters are often confused interchangeably. This is mostly because both of them are used to keep your electrical applications safe and secure. With the advancement and adoption of new technologies, and mostly electrical systems, it’s important to understand what is a surge arrester and what is a lightning arrester in detail. In this article, we will go deeper and understand the surge arresters and lightning arresters in detail and highlight the key differences that make them unique to their name. 

In this article, we will explore the difference between a lightning arrester and a surge arrester, explaining what each one is and how they function and answering the frequently asked question about what is a surge arrester and what is a lightning arrester.

What Is A Surge Arrester?

These electrical devices help protect your electrical equipment by limiting the voltage surges and the current flow. In the main current line, voltage surges often occur due to various factors like lightning, power outages, temporary overvoltage, etc. This fluctuating voltage can be harmful to your appliance. That’s where surge arresters come into place.

Surge arresters help deviate the excess current and limit the voltage to prevent overpressuring your electrical appliances, protecting them from electrical outbursts or short circuits. Surge arresters can be used for various appliances, homeware, or utility substation equipment.

What Is A Lightning Arrester?

The most common and destructive voltage surges occur during lightning. Lightning can lead to high transient voltage, sparks, surge currents, etc. Thus, a lightning arrester is used to protect electrical equipment against lightning. 

A lightning arrester is generally placed higher, like on top of transmission poles, buildings, or towers. The system is well connected through ground wires and securely discharges the current using earthing. When the lightning surges, the lightning arrester absorbs the high voltage current and slowly discharges it through the ground wires, reverting back to normal. 

Lightning Arresters are generally used for heavy appliances that need protection, while surge arresters are installed to handle common voltage fluctuations. 

A Few Other Related Terms To Know

There are a few other terms you must be aware of when learning about surge and lightning arresters. Some of the major ones are:

  • Surge suppressor: It is a device installed to protect your home wiring from voltage fluctuations. A surge protector, or suppressor, is installed on the home distribution board to protect the electrical system from internal fluctuations of the contractor switch itself while also protecting it from main current fluctuations. 
  • Lightning rod: It is a metal rod installed on top of buildings, towers, and poles to protect them from lightning. If a lightning strike directly hits the current lines, it may lead to a dangerous situation involving voltage crashes, power outages, and sometimes even electrical blasts. Hence, a lightning rod, also called a lightning conductor, is installed to prevent these dangers. 

Key Differences Between Surge Arrester And Lightning Arrester

Key Differences Between Surge Arrester And Lightning Arrester

Types of Lightning Arresters

There are various varieties of arresters when we talk about lightning arresters. Some of them are:

  • Electrolytic lightning arresters 
  • Rod gap lightning arresters
  • Expulsion-type lightning arresters
  • Valve-type lightning arresters
  • Metal oxide lightning arresters
  • Oxide film lightning arresters
  • Sphere gap lightning arresters
  • Horn gap lightning arresters
  • Multiple gap lightning arresters
  • Impulsive protective gap lightning arresters
  • Thyrite lightning arresters
  • Auto valve lightning arresters

Surge Arresters Or Lightning Arresters: Which One Do You Need?

This is a contradicting question. Surge arresters or lightning arresters? After you’ve learned what is a surge arrester and what is a lightning arrester and analyzed their key differences, you pose the most important question- which one of them do you need?

To answer this, it depends on your needs and reasons. Both of the arresters are well-suited and perfect devices to protect your homes, eliminating your electrical risks. And if you’re looking around for arresters for your home security, you can get either of them installed. 

Maintenance Of arresters

Proper and dedicated maintenance of arresters is required to ensure complete security and safety. Be it a surge arrester or a lightning arrester, both require timely care to lead to proper functioning. Some of the general tips you can follow are:

  • Inspect them at least once per year or half-yearly in case of severe climatic areas or conditions.
  • Check for loose connections, as they might lead to high-resistance joints 
  • Make sure all system components are secured on their mounting surfaces
  • Keep a check record for corrosion of internal components of the arrester
  • Ensure a clean space around the arrester to avoid contamination and corrosion in the future.
  • Evaluate performance tests to check the functioning of the arresters 
  • Keep a record of ground wire connections and their functioning 

Can A Surge Arrester Be Used As A Lighting Arrester?

Did you know that surge arresters can replace a lightning arrester, but you cannot use a lightning arrester as a surge arrester? As both surge arresters and lightning arresters are designed to provide security against voltage surges and transient voltages, a surge arrester can be used as a lightning arrester in general cases.

While surge arresters are more flexible and can handle broader outages, lightning arresters are structured to handle massive surge currents through lightning strikes. Hence, surge arresters can be used in place of lightning arresters as a temporary security measure. However, lightning arresters are more suitable to be installed in the long run to ensure the effective protection and functioning of your applications. 


Both lightning arresters and surge arresters are important electrical systems designed to protect our electrical appliances from potential electrical surges and lightning damage. You can get any of them installed, as they are almost identical except for some of the key differences we identified.

However, after understanding what a surge arrester and a lightning arrester are, you must have understood how different their purpose and performance are. While you may select anyone, you must consider your needs and preferences in the first place to ensure a safe and secure environment. 


  • What Is The Difference Between Surge Arresters And Surge Suppressors?
    Surge arresters can deal with high-voltage surges without affecting the insulation, while surge suppressors have a low voltage capacity and cannot withstand harsh voltage surges.
  • Do Lightning Rods Attract Lightning?
    Yes, a lightning rod is designed to attract and absorb lightning, leading it to the ground through an electrical pathway. It helps to prevent any potential damages to buildings and structures.
  • Where are surge arresters located?
    A surge arrester is generally found inside the main panel board of your home electrical system.

The Advantages of Direct Current over Alternating Current in the World of Electricity

Advantages of Direct Current

Advantages of Direct Current (1)

In the vast realm of electrical power, two fundamental types exist: Direct Current (DC) and alternating current (AC). While alternating current has long been the dominant force in our power grids, Direct Current is making a steady comeback due to its numerous advantages in specific applications. 

Direct Current (DC) is a steady and unswerving flow of electrical charges. Devices like rectifiers, batteries, fuel cells, and generators come equipped with commutators and produce DC. However, the retail industry found it uneconomical to convert DC to high voltages required for transmitting electricity over long distances. This led to an alternative – Alternating Current (AC), for commercial power transmission.

Later, techniques developed at that time paved the way for long-distance DC transmission, although it still needs to be converted into AC for local distribution. It finds its application in e­lectronics, automotive systems, re­newable ene­rgy, telecommunications, transportation, medical de­vices, research laboratorie­s, and aerospace applications. Let’s explore more about the advantages of Direct Current in detail, along with its various types and how it is utilized in the commercial industry.

What is Direct Current?

The best Direct Current definition would be: Direct Current is a type of electrical current that flows in a constant direction without changing its polarity. In a DC circuit, the electric charge moves steadily from the positive terminal (anode) to the negative terminal (cathode) of a power source, such as a battery or a generator.

Unlike Alternating Current (AC), which periodically reverses its direction, Direct Current maintains a constant flow of electrons in one direction. The magnitude and polarity of DC remain constant over time, creating a stable and predictable electrical flow. Direct Current can be produced by converting AC power to DC using rectifiers or by generating it directly through sources like batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, or dynamos. DC is typically represented by a straight line on a graph, indicating a consistent flow of current.

In practical applications, Direct Current is used in various devices and systems, including electronics, telecommunications, automotive systems, renewable energy technologies, and many portable devices like laptops, smartphones, and electric vehicles. It also plays a crucial role in specific industrial processes, such as electroplating and electrolysis.

The best Direct Current definition would be: Direct Current is a type of electrical current that flows in a constant direction without changing its polarity. In a DC circuit, the electric charge moves steadily from the positive terminal (anode) to the negative terminal (cathode) of a power source, such as a battery or a generator.

Unlike Alternating Current (AC), which periodically reverses its direction, Direct Current maintains a constant flow of electrons in one direction. The magnitude and polarity of DC remain constant over time, creating a stable and predictable electrical flow. Direct Current can be produced by converting AC power to DC using rectifiers or by generating it directly through sources like batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, or dynamos. DC is typically represented by a straight line on a graph, indicating a consistent flow of current.

In practical applications, Direct Current is used in various devices and systems, including electronics, telecommunications, automotive systems, renewable energy technologies, and many portable devices like laptops, smartphones, and electric vehicles. It also plays a crucial role in specific industrial processes, such as electroplating and electrolysis.


Different Direct Current Types

Direct Current (DC) can be further classified into different Direct Current types based on their characteristics and applications. Here are a few types of Direct Current:

  • Constant Current (CC)
  • Constant Voltage (CV)
  • Battery DC
  • Pulsating DC
  • HVDC (High-Voltage Direct Current)

Direct Current Frequency

The Direct Current frequency is 0 Hz, as the current only flows in one direction. Therefore, Direct Current (DC) does not have a frequency since it represents a constant flow of electric charge in a single direction. Frequency, by definition, refers to the number of cycles or oscillations per unit of time. In the case of DC, there are no oscillations or cycles because the current remains constant.

Frequency is associated with Alternating Current (AC), which changes its direction periodically. In an AC system, the frequency represents the number of complete cycles or oscillations that occur per second. In most power grids worldwide, the standard AC frequency is 50 or 60 hertz (Hz), indicating the number of cycles per second. So, while AC has a defined frequency, DC does not have a frequency as it does not oscillate or change direction over time.

Advantages of Direct Current

 Direct Current (DC) has several advantages compared to alternating current (AC). Here are some of the key advantages of using Direct Current :

  • Efficiency: Direct Current power transmission and distribution systems have higher efficiency compared to Alternating Current systems. When transmitting electricity over long distances, DC power experiences less line losses due to lower resistance. This makes DC suitable for high-voltage, long-distance transmission, such as in submarine cables and renewable energy projects.
  • Renewable Energy Integration: Many renewable energy sources, such as solar panels and batteries, generate and store electricity in Direct Current form. Using DC power directly eliminates the need for conversion from DC to AC, which reduces energy losses and overall system complexity.
  • Reduced Electrical Hazards: Direct Current systems generally pose lower risks of electrical shocks compared to Alternating Current systems. DC voltage does not cause the same level of muscular contractions and involuntary release of electrical contacts that AC voltage can cause. This makes DC safer for certain applications, such as in electric vehicles and certain industrial environments.
  • Compatibility with Electronic Devices: Most electronic devices, such as computers, smartphones, and LED lights, operate internally on Direct Current power. Using DC directly eliminates the need for bulky Alternating Current-to-Direct Current converters or adapters, reducing energy losses and improving overall efficiency.
  • Improved Power Quality Stability: Direct Current systems are ideal for those who desire a dependable and reliable power source as they offer improved stability in regards to power quality. AC power is vulnerable to voltage sags, harmonics, and additional disruptions, while DC power is significantly more resistant to such events. As a result, DC is typically implemented in delicate industrial machinery, as well as telecommunication systems and data centers.
  • Modular and scalable : Direct Current systems can effectively accommodate a variety of energy sources for microgrids, energy storage systems, and distributed generation. Such adaptability makes them an ideal choice for both scaling up and down with ease.


Direct Current (DC) offers several advantages over Alternating current. Its key advantages include higher efficiency in power transmission and distribution, better compatibility with electronic devices, reduced electrical hazards, stability in power quality, scalability, and modularity. DC is particularly suitable for renewable energy integration, as many renewable sources generate and store electricity in DC form.

Direct Curre­nt is a widely utilized source of e­lectric power in various fields. The constant and uninte­rrupted flow of electricity in a single­ direction prevents the­ need for converting alte­rnating current to Direct Current  while­ operating electronic de­vices on DC power.

While Alternating Current or AC power remains dominant in power grids and household electrical systems due to historical development and infrastructure compatibility, the importance of DC is growing, especially with the rise of renewable energy and the need for high-efficiency power transmission over long distances. We may see further advancements and innovations in applying Direct Current as technology advances. 


1. What is the difference between Direct Current (DC) and alternating current (AC)?

When comparing dire­ct current (DC) and alternating current (AC), one­ of the main difference­s is the direction of current flow. In a DC circuit, e­lectric charges move in only one­ direction, whereas in an AC circuit, the­ direction of current regularly shifts back and forth. Additionally, DC maintains a constant magnitude­ and polarity while AC changes both over time­. 

2. Can Direct Current be converted to alternating current?

Yes, Direct Current can be converted to alternating current using an inverter. An inverter converts DC to AC by periodically switching the polarity and magnitude of the DC voltage, producing an AC waveform.

3. What are the advantages of Direct Current over alternating current?

Direct Current has certain advantages over Alternating Current, including higher transmission and distribution efficiency, better compatibility with electronic devices, reduced electrical hazards, stability in power quality, and scalability for renewable energy integration. DC is also safer in specific applications eliminating the need for AC-to-DC conversion in devices that operate on DC power.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Electric Generator

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Electric Generator 

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Electric Generator

An electric generator, also known as a Dynamo or an Alternator, is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It functions on the Principle of Electromagnetic Induction, discovered by Michael Faraday in the early 19th century.

The essential elements of an electric generator include a stationary part known as the Stator and a rotating part called the Rotor. The Stator consists of a series of wire coils arranged in a circular pattern, while the Rotor is a shaft with a set of electromagnets or permanent magnets attached to it. The Rotor is connected to a mechanical power source, such as a turbine or an engine, which provides the rotational energy.

When the Rotor spins, it induces a changing magnetic field in the stator coils. Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction states that this changing magnetic field generates an electric current to flow in the wire coils. The induced current can be harnessed and utilised as electrical power.

Electric Generators are commonly used in various applications where a portable or backup power source is needed. They can be found in power plants, where they are driven by steam turbines, gas turbines, or water turbines to generate electricity on a large scale. Portable generators are also available for smaller-scale applications, such as providing electricity during power outages or in remote areas.

Electric Generators Examples

There are various types of electric generators designed for different applications. Here are a few examples of electric generators:

  • Steam Turbine Generator: This type of generator is commonly used in power plants. A turbine is spun by the steam generated by burning fossil fuels or using nuclear energy connected to an electric generator to generate electricity.

  • Gas Turbine Generator: Gas turbine generators are used in power plants as well as for smaller-scale applications. They burn natural gas or liquid fuels to drive a turbine attached to an electric generator to generate electricity.

  • Hydroelectric Generator: Hydroelectric generators utilise the power of flowing or falling water to produce electricity. Water is utilised to spin a turbine, which drives the generator. Hydroelectric power plants often rely on dams or river systems for water supply.

  • Wind Turbine Generator: Wind turbine generators convert wind energy into electrical energy. Strong winds spin the turbine blades, which drive the generator to produce electricity. Wind farms consist of multiple wind turbines connected to a power grid.

  • Diesel Generator: Diesel generators are commonly used as backup power sources in various settings. They run on diesel fuel and consist of an internal combustion engine connected to a generator. Diesel generators are portable, efficient, and widely used for emergency power supply.

electric generator

Uses Of an Electric Generator

Electric generators have various uses and applications across various industries and settings. Here are some common uses of electric generators:

  • Power Generation: Electric generators are widely used in power plants to generate electricity on a large scale. They are driven by various energy sources such as steam turbines, gas turbines, or water turbines. Power plants provide electricity to residential, commercial, and industrial areas.

  • Backup Power: Generators are commonly used as backup power sources in case of power outages or areas with unreliable or limited access to the electrical grid. To ensure uninterrupted operations, they can provide temporary electricity to homes, buildings, hospitals, data centres, and critical infrastructure.

  • Remote Locations: Electric generators are essential in remote or off-grid areas without access to the primary power grid. They can provide electricity for remote communities, construction sites, campsites, outdoor events, and expeditions.

  • Construction and Industrial Sites: Generators are extensively used in construction sites and industrial facilities where a temporary or independent power supply is required. They can power construction tools, heavy machinery, lighting systems, and other equipment.

Advantages Of An Electric Generator

Electric generators offer several advantages in various applications. Here are some of the key advantages:

  • Power Generation Flexibility: Electric generators can generate electricity in diverse locations and situations. They can be used in remote areas, construction sites, emergencies, and any location without reliable access to the power grid. Generators allow for on-demand power generation where and when it is needed.

  • Backup Power Supply: Generators serve as reliable backup power sources during power outages or in areas with unreliable electricity supply. They can provide temporary electricity to homes, businesses, hospitals, and critical infrastructure, ensuring uninterrupted operations and essential services.

  • Quick Power Availability: Generators can provide electricity almost immediately after starting. This quick power availability is crucial in emergencies, construction projects, or when time-sensitive operations must continue without interruption.

  • Energy Source Flexibility: Generators can be designed to operate on various energy sources, such as diesel, natural gas, propane, gasoline, steam, or renewable sources like wind or solar. This versatility allows using different fuel types based on availability, cost, or environmental considerations.

  • Economic Benefits: Electric generators can lead to economic benefits in several ways. They can reduce downtime and productivity losses during power outages and provide power for remote operations. In regions with unreliable power grids, generators can help maintain operations, attract investments, and promote economic growth.

  • Emergency and Disaster Preparedness: Generators are essential components of emergency preparedness plans. They can provide power during natural disasters, emergencies, or situations where the main power grid is disrupted. This ensures that critical services, communication systems, and life-saving equipment remain operational.

  • Environmental Considerations: Some generators are designed to operate on renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar. This allows cleaner power generation reducing reliance on fossil fuels and minimising environmental impact.

Disadvantages Of An Electric Generator

While electric generators have many advantages, they also come with certain disadvantages. Here are some of the disadvantages associated with electric generators:

  • Fuel Dependency: Most generators require a fuel source such as diesel, gasoline, natural gas, or propane to operate. This dependency on fuel means ongoing fuel costs, fuel availability considerations, and the need for fuel storage. Additionally, fluctuations in fuel prices can impact the operational costs of running a generator.

  • Environmental Impact: Many generators, particularly those powered by fossil fuels, emit greenhouse gases, pollutants, and particulate matter during operation. These emissions contribute to air pollution and have environmental implications, including climate change and negative health effects. However, cleaner alternatives are available, such as generators powered by renewable energy sources like wind or solar.

  • Limited Lifespan: Generators have a finite lifespan and may require replacement or major repairs after a certain period. Factors such as usage intensity, maintenance practices, and operating conditions can impact the longevity of a generator. Planning for the eventual replacement of a generator is necessary to ensure continued power supply.

  • Safety Considerations: Generators pose certain safety risks if improperly operated or maintained. Risks include the potential for fuel leaks, electrical hazards, fire hazards, and carbon monoxide poisoning if generators are not installed or used correctly. Following proper safety protocols and guidelines is crucial to mitigate these risks.

  • Limited Efficiency: Generators have an efficiency rate determining how effectively they convert fuel or mechanical energy into electrical energy. Some energy is lost as waste heat during conversion, leading to lower overall efficiency than direct grid-supplied electricity. However, advancements in generator technology have improved efficiency levels in recent years.


Electric generators have numerous advantages, including flexibility, backup power supply, quick availability, and emergency preparedness.

However, electric generators have disadvantages: fuel dependency, environmental impact, noise and vibration, maintenance and operational costs, limited lifespan, size and space requirements, startup time, efficiency, exhaust and emission management, and safety considerations.

Overall, electric generators play a crucial role in various industries, providing reliable power in diverse settings and ensuring the availability of electricity for a wide range of applications.


1. What fuels can be used to power an electric generator?

Various fuels, including diesel, gasoline, natural gas, propane, and renewable energy sources like Wind or Solar energy, can power electric generators. The fuel choice depends on factors such as availability, cost, environmental impact, and the specific application.

2. Can electric generators be used as a primary power source?

Electric generators are typically used as backup power sources or when access to the primary power grid is limited or unreliable. While they can provide temporary or off-grid power, they are not typically used as the primary source of electricity in everyday situations due to factors such as fuel dependency, maintenance requirements, and operational costs.

3.Can electric generators produce clean or renewable energy?

Electric generators can produce clean or renewable energy depending on the type of generator and the fuel used. Generators powered by renewable sources like Wind or Solar energy produce clean electricity with minimal environmental impact. However, generators running on fossil fuels emit pollutants and contribute to carbon emissions.

Checklist For Electrical Maintenance

Checklist For Electrical Maintenance

Checklist for Electrical Maintenance

A proper Industrial Electrical Maintenance prevents complex and costly breakdowns. It involves evaluating and servicing industrial equipment and assets to maintain them in satisfactory operational conditions. It is essential for industries, public buildings, and residential buildings.

This article emphasises the importance of industrial electrical maintenance. By the end of this guide, you will have a good understanding of an electrical maintenance checklist and its components. 

Why is Electrical Maintenance essential?

Conducting electrical machine maintenance regularly is fundamental to having a well-managed operation. Not all asset or equipment failures are avoidable, but they can be prevented by conducting regular tests and managing reports.

Some benefits of an electrical maintenance checklist are:

  • Reduces the risk of an unscheduled power outage by as much as 66%. 
  • Prevents unexpected failures and overload

Looking For Best Industrial Electrical Maintenance Services? Check Our Reliable Set Of Services At Laxmi Associates. Hire Us Today To Get Your Building Checked.

Checklist For Industrial Electrical Maintenance

A good maintenance checklist helps maintenance teams protect the business from unanticipated breakdowns and costly repairs. Maintenance checklists and logbooks are tools used to record the checking, repairing, and servicing to ensure proper maintenance during future electric maintenance inspections

Electrical Maintenance checklists are commonly used for areas like:

  • Residential Locations: (Buildings, houses, apartments, etc.) 
  • Industrial and Commercial Establishments: (Factories, shopping malls, hotels, entertainment areas, etc.)
  • Healthcare and Special Residencies: (Hospitals, theatres, assembly lines, storage areas, etc.).
Checklist For Industrial Electrical Maintenance

Components of an Electrical Maintenance Checklist

There are various components that need to be checked when it comes to an industrial maintenance checklist. To evaluate the health of various equipment, specific tests like  Relay and Circuit Breaker Tests, Oil Tests, Dissolved Gas Test, or SF6 Gas Leak Testing are conducted by contracted specialists. 

An Electric Machine Maintenance checklist should consist of the following components:

  • Checking and testing of all transformers
  • Inspecting and testing the AFCI (arc fault circuit breakers)
  • Inspecting and testing GFCIs (ground fault circuit breakers)
  • Inspecting and testing voltage regulators
  • Checking electrical panels
  • Verifying whether electric meters work correctly
  • Checking and cleaning motor controls
  • Inspecting and testing switches and gears
  • Inspecting the distribution and termination of the wiring
  • Checking all grounding and overcurrent protection devices
  • Inspecting lights and light fixtures, including Recession, Security, HID and fluorescent
  • Ballast and lamp replacement
  • Special systems, such as Generators, Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, Telecommunications, battery power, video and cable 


The more effective the preventive measures are, the greater the chances of having facilities run without fault for longer. A good maintenance checklist helps the maintenance team protect the business from unanticipated breakdowns and costs.  Laxmi Associates is an expert pioneer in power system equipment testing. We aim to maximise the life of electrical equipment and deliver reliable Industrial electrical maintenance services.



1. What Is An Electric Maintenance Inspection?

An Electric Maintenance inspection is a process that evaluates the condition of residential buildings, service equipment, and various industrial assets. These Maintenance inspections help identify faults and failures before they worsen, preventing short circuits and costly repairs.

2. Why Is Electric Maintenance Important?

Electrical maintenance is vital for the following:

  • reliability
  • safety
  • efficiency
  • Keeping records

3. What is the importance of a Maintenance checklist?

Keeping records of electrical machine maintenance ensures timely inspections and repairs. A maintenance checklist tracks the results of tests conducted previously to help identify potential failures. It also informs technicians of the equipment that may be overdue for maintenance and helps them analyze problems and malfunctions.

Understanding the Breakdown Voltage of Transformer Oil: Importance and Benefits

Transformer Oil

Breakdown Voltage Of Transformer Oil

To understand the “Breakdown Voltage” (BDV) of transformer oil, we first need to get introduced to dielectric strength. Dielectric strength is defined as the ability of the oil to withstand electrical stress without breaking down. Here, breaking down refers to the failure of insulating properties.  

Now, let us move on to our main question and try to understand the BDV of transformer oil. 

What is BDV test of transformer oil

What is BDV test of transformer oil

Oil stored in drums loses its dielectric strength and must be tested and treated before use in electrical equipment. The breakdown voltage test of transformer oil is crucial for the smooth operation of the transformer. 

A periodical BDV testing of the transformer oil ensures the quality and healthiness of the transformer oil. Breakdown voltage is determined by observing the voltage at which a specific gap separates sparking strands between two electrodes immersed in oil. 

A low BDV value indicates that the oil contains moisture and conducting substances. As per the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the minimum BDV value of transformer oil should be 30 kV.

Factors affecting the BDV value of transformer oil

Factors affecting the BDV value of transformer oil
  • Water is the most prevalent contaminant in transformer oil. Moisture transports charge carriers, reducing the dielectric strength of the oil. 
  • Acids, for example, are aging byproducts that deliver charge carriers via dissociation. They are also surface-active, which reduces surface tension. As a result, they promote bubble evolution as dielectric strength decreases.
  • Bubble evolution is also influenced by pressure. The breakdown voltage rises as the pressure rises. The breakdown voltage should decrease at pressures lower than atmospheric pressure.
  • Dry cellulose fibre particles lower the breakdown voltage by promoting bubble formation. 

Benefits of Regular BDV Testing of Transformer Oil

The Breakdown Voltage is the primary indicator of the health of the oil. It is a popular and important transformer oil test because it: 

  • helps determine the essential electrical properties of transformer oil
  • determines whether a specific oil is suitable for future use.
  • Informs whether filtration or regeneration is required.
  • help reduce oil costs and increase component life
  • prevent failures and maximize safety
  • Preventing equipment fires
  • Maintaining transformer reliability

Difference between breakdown voltage and rated voltage

The breakdown voltage refers to the limit voltage of the capacitor; above this voltage, the dielectric in the capacitor will fail. The rated voltage is the voltage that the capacitor can withstand over time and is less than the breakdown voltage.

Capacitors function properly at rated voltage and safely at voltages no higher than the breakdown voltage.


The breakdown voltage is the voltage at which the dielectric fails. It indicates the health of the transformer oil. Overall, the breakdown voltage of transformer oil is important because it allows the transformer to operate smoothly and prevent failures. 

BDV results are better in dry and clean oil than with moisture and other conducting impurities.

Air-insulated switchgear vs gas-insulated switchgear

Air insulated switchgear vs Gas insulated switchgear

Air insulated switchgear vs Gas insulated switchgear

Air-insulated switchgear (AIS) and gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) are two types of equipment employed in the electrical power distribution and transmission industry. While AIS is commonly used in low and medium-voltage systems, GIS is used in high-voltage systems. 

In this article, we discuss their benefits, applications and differences to provide a thorough understanding of AIS and GIS. 

What is air-insulated switchgear?

Air-insulated switchgear is a secondary power distribution device and medium voltage switchgear that helps redistribute the power of a primary power distributor powered by a high voltage distribution transformer. 

AIS controls, protects and isolates electrical equipment in power transmission and distribution systems. The equipment is designed to be operated in the air at atmospheric pressure, which is why the name “air-insulated.”

What is air-insulated switchgear

Advantages of AIS

  • It is a primary choice for areas with extensive space.
  • Due to low construction and switchgear costs and good design, the system is financially viable.
  • Less time spent on construction makes it suitable for immediate installs.
  • All the equipment is visible, making maintenance simple. Faults are simple to identify and fix

Applications of AIS

  • Power generation stations 
  • Airports 
  • Railway stations 
  • Shopping malls 
  • Oil and gas 
  • Mining 
  • Marine
What is gas-insulated switchgear

A gas-insulated switchgear is a composite device enclosed in a solid metal frame comprising electrical devices like transformers, circuit breakers, bus cars, surge arrestors, etc. These components are housed in shielded chambers with barrier devices and submerged in sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6).

The main uses of a GIS substation are switching, separating, converting, monitoring, and distributing electrical energy in power systems. SF6, an inert gas with high insulating qualities, chemical stability, and thermal stability, is used as the primary component of a GIS device.

Advantages of GIS

  • The earthed metal enclosure provides the attending staff with a secure working space. 
  • Because the insulation system is less disrupted by compartmentalized containment of the live sections, the system is very dependable.
  • Minimal maintenance due to efficient design and protection from the weather.
  • Rapid assembly as a result of thorough pre-assembly

Applications of GIS

  • Power transmission
  • Railways
  • Grid integration of renewable energy production facilities
  • They are favored in big cities because there is limited room available in cities.
  • Valleys, as well as mountain regions
  • Underground substations
  • Substations on sea or lake
  • HVDC-based terminal substations for transmission
  • Industrial complexes

Differences between air-insulated switchgear and gas-insulated switchgear


AIS (air-insulated switchgear) 

GIS (gas-insulated switchgear) 

It has a metal-clad system that employs air insulation.

It uses the gas sulfur hexafluoride for insulation. Sulfur hexafluoride is much heavier than air and offers great extinction behavior.

Three-position draw-out circuit breakers are used in the metal-clad AIS.

GIS systems use fixed-mounted circuit breakers. 

More economical for low/medium voltage systems.

It is expensive as compared to AIS.

More maintenance cost over a lifetime 

Less maintenance cost 

The AIS breaker is removable for maintenance & troubleshoot 

The breakers here are ‘sealed-for-life.’ 

AIS systems cover more space 

GIS systems cover less space 

More installation time 

Less installation time 

Visual inspections of AIS systems should be done every year to every two years.

GIS switchyards require significantly less maintenance


Gas-insulated switchgear is mainly used in industries with high power demand and limited space to install equipment. However, it can be more expensive in the long term, requiring more specialized tools and skilled professionals to install and maintain. 

On the other hand, air-insulated switchgear is a more common and economical alternative for low and medium-voltage systems. 

Surge Arrester Types

Surge Arrester Types

Surge Arrester Types

The terminologies surge arrester and lightning arrester often confuse even the experts. While both surge and lightning arresters protect your electrical appliances from accidents, there is little difference between them. 

This article discusses surge arresters, their types, and how they differ from lightning arresters. 

What is Surge Arrester?

What is Surge Arrester

Surge arresters prevent damage to electrical devices due to high-voltage transients produced by internal or external activities. A surge arrester’s primary function is to protect from high voltages by discharging surge currents.

What are the different types of surge arresters?

On the basis of rating of voltage levels, protecting ability, and stability in pressure support, the surge arresters are classified into the following types:  

1.) Distribution arresters

Distribution arresters have less energy-discharging ability and provide minimal surge protection. Therefore, this arrester is primarily employed in medium voltage network types.

2.) Station arresters

These arresters provide better protection showing minimal discharging voltage levels, more energy absorption and high-pressure relief. 

The important applications of station arresters include strong surges and huge substations.

3.) Intermediate arresters 

As the name suggests, Intermediate arresters possess medium-level protecting capabilities and medium energy discharging capacity. 

What is the working principle of a surge arrester?

When the voltage received by the electrical devices is higher than the fixed voltage, they may blow up or get damaged. That is why a surge arrester protects these devices from damage, ensuring that high voltages do not travel through the electrical system. 

The surge arrester diverts the extra voltage into the earth wire, inhibiting the flow through electronic devices and simultaneously allowing the normal voltage to continue along its path.  

Surge arrester and Lightning arrester

difference between surge arrester and lighting arrester

Lightning arresters are devices installed to shield power lines and homes from dangerous power surges. They protect various electrical equipment and systems from high voltage surges caused by lightning strikes and their effects.

The table below distinguishes surge and lightning arresters. 

Surge Arresters 

Lightning arresters 

Protect various electrical appliances within the home 

Protects the electrical appliances outside the home 

Installed in the main panel board  

Installed in the outside panel board 

Interrupt the surges & divert the surplus energy to the ground 

Redirect the flow of electricity directly to the ground 

Its various types include low-voltage, distribution, neutral protection, fiber tube, network, signal, direct current, stations, etc.

The various types include metal oxide, electrolyte, multi-gap, horn, sphere, and rod.

Can be used only as a surge arrester 

Can also be used as a surge arrester 


Surge arresters and lightning arresters play a crucial role in protecting your electrical appliances. The difference lies in how they function. 

Visit us at Laxmi Associates if you wish to learn more about surge arresters and electrical appliance protection.

You can gain a better understanding of it by reading about the “Surge Arrester Working Principle” as well.

What are HT cable types?

What are HT cable types?

HT Cables Types

H-type cables do not have belt insulation. The screening of individual cores remains thin and flexible to prevent much power dissipation. The screens are thin so that there is hardly any current induced. The advantage of H cable is that separation of cores by mechanical displacement will not stress the dielectric.